What types of Orbis are there?
Orbis (automatic speed control device) that automatically cracks down on speeding cars. A sensor measures the speed of the car, and if the speed exceeds a certain level, a photograph of evidence is taken.
The Orbis appeared on Japanese roads in the late 1970s. For more than 40 years since then, ORBIS has continued to spread and evolve. There are 7 types of Orbis that have been developed so far, and if you divide them finely, there are more than 10 types of models. Let’s take a closer look at the features of each orbis.
“Radar type” is the oldest type of orbis. It is a type that uses the Doppler effect of radio waves for speed measurement, and is designed to determine the running speed from the frequency of the microwave reflected by the running vehicle.
The early radar-type Orvis was a box type and was installed on the road shoulder. Relatively new models have separate sensors and cameras, with the sensor installed on top of an F-shaped post or truss (gate-shaped post), and the camera on the shoulder of the road.
The radar-type Orbis has been used for many years, but since the camera is film-type and inconvenient, the obsolete ones are being removed. However, it seems that many of the laser-type orbis that no longer function are left as dummies for intimidation.
New radar type deployed on community roads
In the past, the installation location of radar-type Orbis was limited to roads where speed was easy to reach, such as highways and arterial roads. However, in recent years, new models have been deployed on community roads.
A model called “SWSS” is deployed on community roads. It has a compact body that can be installed on a pole, and has a built-in high-performance radar sensor and camera.
Another feature of SWSS is that it uses the “K band (24.150 GHz band)” instead of the conventional “X band (10.525 GHz band)” for the sensor frequency. Only one SWSS is deployed in each of Saitama Prefecture and Gifu Prefecture, and deployment in other regions has not been confirmed.
loop coil orbis
The “loop coil type” is an old type of Orbis along with the radar type. “Loop coil” is a sensor that detects metal objects with magnetism, and in the loop coil type Orbis, three sensors are embedded in the ground at intervals of 6.9m.
The loop-coil system measures the vehicle speed from the time required to pass between each sensor, and photographs are taken with a film camera on the shoulder of the road. Speed measurement is performed once each between the 1st and 2nd sensors and the 2nd and 3rd sensors, and if there is a large discrepancy between the two measurements, it will be treated as an erroneous measurement and not taken.
The “H System” is an evolved version of the Radar Orbis. Vehicle speed is measured by a radar sensor and photographed by a digital camera, and the photographed image is sent to the police via a communication line. The shape of the main body is a separate type in which the sensor and the camera are separate bodies, both of which are installed on the top of a large support.
The H system was introduced in 1992, and at one point accounted for about half of all orbis nationwide. Currently, the LH system is the mainstream of Orbis, but in Hokkaido, where there is a lot of snow and it is difficult to use the loop coil system, the radar system is still heavily used.
The name H system (high speed system) is a common name given by a tuning car magazine, and the official name is “high speed driving suppression system”.
The “LH system” is an orvis that combines the loop coil type and the H system. It measures the speed with an underground loop coil and takes pictures with a digital camera installed on a large support.
The LH system was first deployed in 1994. Currently, it is the most installed type among fixed orbis, and it is also deployed in tunnels on the Metropolitan Expressway Circular Route. The name LH (Loop Coil High Speed) system is a common name, and the official name is “Loop Coil High Speed Driving Control System”.
Small version “LS type” has appeared
The LH system has evolved, and in recent years a new model called the LS type has appeared. The LS model is a compact type that installs the shooting unit on the shoulder of the road, and has two cameras on the main body, so it can shoot two lanes at the same time.
vehicle mobile orbis
The ORBIS that is installed inside a one-box car is called a “Vehicle Mobile ORBIS”. The official name is “vehicle speed monitoring and recording device”, and there are two types: radar type and photoelectric type. The basic mechanism of the radar type is the same as that of the fixed type.
Photoelectric sensors utilize the photoelectric phenomenon, which converts light into electric current. The photoelectric system works by placing two sets of small reflectors and transmitter/receiver on the ground at regular intervals, and determining the vehicle speed from the timing at which the light rays emitted between each set are blocked.
Both the radar type and the photoelectric type have the same point of taking pictures with the camera inside the car. It is a vehicle mobile orbis that was active as the original mobile orbis, but it has been abolished around 2018 with the appearance of the new mobile orbis.
In recent years, a new type of mobile orbis has become popular. There are three types of new mobile Orbis: portable, semi-portable, and semi-fixed, and each has a different use.
A compact mobile ORBIS that can be carried by one or two people is called a “portable ORBIS”. The portable ORBIS can be installed in a space of about 1m in length and width, so there are almost no restrictions on where it can be deployed. It can be deployed not only on highways and arterial roads, but also on community roads and inside tunnels.
There are three types of portable Orbis, “LSM-300”, “LSM-310” and “MSSS”, each with different features. LSM-300 and LSM-310 are models with laser sensors. It is designed to measure vehicle speed by laser scanning, and does not require a radio license to use.
MSSS is equipped with a radar sensor and uses the K-band radar wave mentioned above. The LSM-300 camera is monochrome, while the LSM-310 and MSSS cameras are color.
“Semi-portable Orbis” is a mobile Orbis that is installed on a pedestal with a built-in battery. The name of the current model is “LSM-300HK”, and the basic performance is the same as the above-mentioned LSM-300.
The semi-portable Orbis weighs about 500Kg on its pedestal, so it cannot be moved without a truck. For this reason, although mobility is low, the large-capacity battery allows continuous operation for several days, and unmanned operation is also possible.
“Semi-stationary Orbis” is an Orbis in which cases are installed at multiple locations on the road and portable units are deployed at each location on a daily basis. The model used is the LSM-310, and the strobe unit and sensor/camera unit are separated and placed side by side in a case for operation.
Until you get close to the installation location, you won’t know if the semi-fixed Orbis case contains an actual machine. For this reason, even when the case is empty, it exhibits a certain speed control effect.
Phototube mobile orbis
Phototube type mobile Orbis is a type that has been confirmed to exist in 2020. It uses the above-mentioned photoelectric sensor, and the camera is placed in an inconspicuous place to take pictures of the violating vehicle.
From the above features, it can be said that the phototube type mobile ORBIS is a vehicle type without the one-box car. However, it is highly likely that what was witnessed in 2020 was a test machine, and it is unknown at this time whether it will be fully introduced.
Fixed laser orbis
In recent years, the laser type has also been adopted for fixed orbis. Multiple types have been confirmed, and some have been witnessed using dilapidated Orbis.
The “Lp type” is a slim box type that is installed on a road shoulder support, and is also called a “self-supporting type”. It has a built-in laser sensor and camera in a white housing and is surrounded by a fence with a surveillance camera.
“Ls type” is a type that is installed on F type pillars and trusses. It is similar in shape to the LH system, but since it is a laser system, it does not use a loop coil.
The “Li type” is a type that uses a loop coil type camera housing. A laser unit is put in an old housing, and it is expected that the number of deployed units will increase as the loop coil type ages.
“LiH type” is a type that uses the camera of the LH system. Measurements are taken with a laser sensor installed on the shoulder of the road, and images are taken with the camera of the LH system.