What are 3 and 5 numbers? Differences and definitions / standards | Taxes and vehicle inspections | MOBY [モビー]

5 number and 3 number are classification numbers

How to read the license plate

First, let’s review how to read the license plate.As you can see in the picture above, the license plateArea name, classification number, hiragana, etc., serial designation numberIt contains four pieces of information.

The area name indicates the area where the Transport Branch Office or Inspection and Registration Office is located, that is, where the specification is based. The classification number is the type of vehicle, and the hiragana is the purpose of use of the vehicle.The serial designated number is the so-called “number”.

Number 5 is “small passenger car” number 3 is “ordinary car”

The above “classification number” is different between the 5th number and 3rd number cars, which is the theme of this time.

In other words, the types of cars are legally different. Understanding this type is essential to knowing the difference between a 5th number car and a 3rd number car.

According to the Road Transport Vehicle Law, it is first divided into automobiles and motorized bicycles. The explanation of motorized bicycles is omitted this time, and automobiles are further classified into ordinary automobiles, small automobiles, light automobiles, large special automobiles, and small special automobiles.

Numbers 5 and 3 are related to “ordinary cars” and “small passenger cars” in “small cars”.

What is a 5 number car?Definition and current model

Definition of vehicles classified as small passenger vehicles

Mazda Demio 3rd generation 2013 model
Mazda Demio 3rd generation 2013 model

Vehicle types classified as small passenger cars are classified into 5 numbers. The structural conditions for small passenger cars are as follows.

  • Number of wheels: 4 or more
  • Overall length: 4.7m or less
  • Overall width: 1.7m or less
  • Overall height: 2.0m or less
  • Total engine displacement: 660cc or less, and 2,000cc or less (not related to diesel vehicles)

Many of the cars classified as so-called “compact cars” meet the above conditions, so“5 number = compact car”There is almost no doubt about it.

Since the standard for total engine displacement applies only to gasoline engines, it can be seen that the engine displacement of diesel engine vehicles does not affect the classification.

By the way, the standard body size of a mini vehicle is a total length of 3.4 m or less, a total width of 1.48 m or less, and a total height of 2.0 m or less. The overall height is the same for both, but you can see that the length and width of the car body are longer and larger for small passenger cars.

In addition, the engine that can be installed in a light vehicle is 660cc or less, so it is clear that this is the reason why the maintenance cost of the light vehicle is low in terms of taxation.

Current car of 5 number car

The current models of the 5 number standard include the following models.

Model name / manufacturer Body dimensions *
(Overall length mm x Overall width mm x Overall height mm)
Engine displacement (cc) New car price range (tax included)
Jimny Sierra / Suzuki 3,550 x 1,645 x 1,730 1,460 1,793,000
~ 2,057,000 yen
Yaris / Toyota 3,940 x 1,695 x 1,500 996
~ 2,522,000 yen
Rise / Toyota 3,995 x 1,695 x 1,620 996 1,679,000
~ 2,282,200 yen

* There are some differences in body dimensions depending on the grade.

What is a 3 number car?Definition and current model

3 number car = car larger than small car

Toyota Harrier

Number 3 is usually installed on passenger cars. The conditions for ordinary passenger cars are very easy to understand and are as follows.

  • Larger than a small car with four or more wheels

The standard of the 5 number car introduced earlier included the overall length, overall width, and overall height.at leastIf one of these dimensions exceeds the dimensions specified for a small car, the model will be classified as a regular passenger car and will be number 3 car.

3 number current car

The current models of the 3 number standard include the following models.

Model name / manufacturer Body dimensions (total length x total width x total height) Engine displacement (cc) New car price range (tax included)
Swift Sport / Suzuki 3,890 x 1,735 x 1,500 1,371 1,874,400
~ 2,141,700 yen
Alphard Vellfire / Toyota 4,935 x 1,850 x 1,950 2,494 (4 cylinders)
3,456 (6 cylinders)
~ 7,752,000 yen
CR-V / Honda 4,605 ​​x 1,855 x 1,680 1,496 (gasoline)
1,993 (hybrid)
~ 4,558,400 yen

* There are some differences in body dimensions depending on the grade.

What is the difference between the 3rd number car and the 5th number car?

What is the difference between the 3rd number car and the 5th number car?Displacement and body sizeis. If any of the displacement of 2,001cc or more, the total length of 4,701mm or more, the total width of 1,701mm or more, and the total height of 2,001mm or more is applicable, it is classified as a 3rd number car.

The most noticeable difference isWhen driving at high speedProbably. The larger the engine displacement, the higher the acceleration performance and high-speed cruising performance, and the larger the body size, the wider the tread width and wheelbase, and the higher the high-speed stability.

As a general rule, the car is equipped with an engine that matches the body size, soThe 5th number car is good at short-distance driving on general roads, and the 3rd number car is suitable for long-distance travel using highways.Become a personality.

However, there are also models with a displacement of 2,000 cc or more on a 5 number size body and an engine with a displacement of less than 2,000 cc on a 3 number size body, so the watershed of 3 and 5 numbers. It can be said that there is almost no difference between nearby cars.

The larger the difference in engine displacement and body size, the more noticeable the difference in personality, but it is not limited to the 3rd number car and the 5th number car.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the 5 number car?

All mini cars are number 5 (image is N-BOX custom)

The disadvantages of the 5th number car are the narrowness inside the car due to the limitation of the body size, and the lack of performance and instability in the high speed range due to the small displacement engine and body performance.

Instead, the car body is small and easy to handle, it is easy to drive even on narrow roads, and the engine displacement is small, so it tends to have excellent fuel efficiency. Another advantage of the 5th number car is that the tire size is smaller and the maintenance cost tends to be lower.

In addition, since the 5th number car can be made as large and wide as possible with limited body dimensions, the disadvantage is that the body side design of the wagon car that pursues space efficiency becomes like a flat plate.

However, this will not be a decisive disadvantage as it depends on individual preference.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the 3rd number car?

Large SUVs such as Land Cruiser are number 3

The advantages and disadvantages of the 3rd number car are almost the opposite of the 5th number.

Since the car body is large because there is no limit on the overall length and width, the inside of the car can be made wide, the high speed stability is high, and the engine performance commensurate with it makes it possible to move comfortably over long distances, which is the merit of the 3rd number car.

Furthermore, the length of the suspension arm also changes due to the difference in overall width, so it tends to be more comfortable to ride.

Instead, it is difficult to make small turns due to the large car body, and especially when the total width is close to 1.8 m, it becomes extremely difficult to handle on narrow roads, so those who are not good at driving should be careful.

It can be said that the disadvantage of the 3rd number car is that the maintenance cost including the fuel cost and the vehicle price will increase as a result because it is equipped with a large car body and a high output engine.

Is the tax different between the 3rd and 5th numbers?

Taxes on automobiles can be divided into three categories: automobile tax, automobile weight tax, and automobile liability insurance. Previously, there was a car acquisition tax that was incurred when purchasing a new car, but it was abolished with the introduction of the Environmental Performance Discount.

Of theseOnly automobile tax may have different taxes related to number 3 and number 5.is. Let’s take a look at the characteristics of each tax as well.

Car tax can be different

© beeboys /stock.adobe.com

Automobile tax is a tax that the owner of a registered vehicle (= vehicle that has a license plate) is required to pay as of April 1 every year, and a payment slip will be mailed around May.

The basis for determining the amount of this tax paid is the displacement of the installed engine. The cheapest passenger car is a light car (displacement 660cc or less) for 10,800 yen.

For new cars registered after October 2019, an automobile tax of 25,000 to 110,000 yen will be levied depending on the displacement. Details are as follows.

Engine displacement New car after October 2019 New car before October 2019
Over 660cc / 1,000cc or less 25,000 yen 29,500 yen
Over 1,000cc / 1,500cc or less 30,500 yen 34,500 yen
Over 1,500cc / 2,000cc or less 36,000 yen 39,500 yen
Over 2,000cc / 2,500cc or less 43,500 yen 45,000 yen
Over 2,500cc / 3,000cc or less 50,000 yen 51,000 yen
Over 3,000cc / 3,500cc or less 57,000 yen 58,000 yen
Over 3,500cc / 4,000cc or less 65,500 yen 66,500 yen
Over 4,000cc / 4,500cc or less 75,500 yen 76,500 yen
Over 4,500cc / 6,000cc or less 87,000 yen 88,000 yen
Over 6,000cc 110,000 yen 111,000 yen

From the above table, you can see that the automobile tax amount is different even in the same displacement category around October 2019.

In addition,Vehicles that are more than 13 years old from the first year registration are heavily charged as having a large environmental load.It is a mechanism (a mechanism that is controversial), and a large amount of automobile tax is levied by about 15%.

Daihatsu Boon is a 5 number compact car

Gasoline vehicles with a displacement of over 2,000 cc will be number 3, so the vehicle tax amount is higher for vehicles with 3 number standards than for vehicles with 5 numbers.It will be.

For example, if you think, “The car tax is as cheap as a light car, and you want to ride a car that has more engine power than a light car and has a wider interior,” a car model equipped with an engine with an engine displacement of 1.0L is perfectly guided. increase.

Weight tax and liability insurance may have an indirect effect

Now, regarding the remaining automobile acquisition tax, weight tax, and automobile liability insurance, these tax amounts will not increase or decrease due to differences in the standards of the 3rd and 5th numbers.

However, it is a fact that the structural features created by the difference in standards between the 3rd number car and the 5th number car are greatly related to these.

The 3rd number car is larger than the 5th number car in both body size and engine displacement, so the vehicle weight tends to be heavier.The vehicle weight tax is higher for models with heavier vehicle weight, so the amount of tax paid tends to be higher than the 5th number.The table is as follows.

Vehicle weight
(T: ton)
Eco car
(Main tax rate)
From new car registration
Less than 13 years
More than 13 years after new car registration
・ Less than 18 years
Over 18 years since new car registration
0.5t or less 5,000 yen 8,200 yen 11,400 yen 12,600 yen
~ 1t 10,000 yen 16,400 yen 22,800 yen 25,200 yen
~ 1.5t 15,000 yen 24,600 yen 34,200 yen 37,800 yen
~ 2t 20,000 Yen 32,800 yen 45,600 yen 50,400 yen
~ 2.5 25,000 yen 41,000 yen 57,000 yen 63,000 yen
~ 3t 30,000 yen 49,200 yen 68,400 yen 75,600 yen

License plates other than 3 and 5 numbers!

© Piyawat Nandeenoparit / stock.adobe.com

Only numbers and letters are written on the license plate, but you can reach various information by digging deeper into each piece of information.

Among them, the 3rd and 5th cars are related to the key factors of car selection such as body size and engine displacement, so they are also important points when choosing a car.

In addition to the 3rd and 5th numbers, there are license plates with classification standards from 0s to 100s, 200s, and 900s.

The numbers assigned are meaningful and are distinguished from vehicles used for purposes other than general purposes, such as “freight vehicles” and “special vehicles.” See the related article for details.

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